With fuel costs now representing about 22 percent of a
fleet’s total operating costs, and anti-idling laws in most states,
idle-reduction technologies have become a key consideration when buying new
tractors. However, many fleets remain on the sidelines due to a number of
barriers, including a lack of information and a lack of understanding on the
payback for idle-reduction technologies, the North
American Council for Freight Efficiency (NACFE) said in a new report.
On July 30 the group released a new “Confidence Report” on
idle-reduction technologies. The report looks at adoption rates of the primary
technologies and techniques available today. For instance, there is high
confidence in the success of fuel-operated heaters, electronic engine idle
parameters, driver training and driver incentives, with payback time-frames
generally under a year.
Technologies such as auto engine stop/start, battery HVAC
systems, solar panels and diesel auxiliary power units achieve lower levels of
confidence from fleets with longer payback periods of up to three years.
“To me, idle reduction is simple – we have to get a
technology figured out to support the battery system. I don’t think anyone
wants to idle just to be idling; they do it because we have to provide those
creature comforts,” Mike Jeffress, vice president of maintenance for Maverick
NACFE said that a 10 percent reduction in idling is worth
about 1 percent in fuel economy, or between $500 and $700 per year in fuel
savings at $3 per gallon on a truck driven 100,000 miles.
“And a reduction of 20 percent is not unreasonable if the
right combination of technologies is employed and managed,” NACFE noted.
“Drivers are also a very important – if not the most important – part of the
successful management of idle times.”
Mike Roeth, NACFE executive director, said this report is an
update of a Confidence Report originally compiled five years ago. While not
much has changed in terms of the technologies available, updates have improved
“If you are not using many of these solutions, you could be
idling in the 40 percent to 50 percent range in over-the-road tractors pretty
regularly,” Roeth said. “We’ve talked to many fleets that have specific
programs to reduce idling and they are well below 20 percent, so there is a
significant opportunity there.”
Reducing idle time provides benefits beyond simply complying
with anti-idle regulations, said Kevin Otto, team lead for the NACFE
Idle-Reduction Technologies Confidence Report.
“There are a lot of really good reasons to limit the idling
of the main engine in a truck – providing the driver with the most comfortable
conditions to spend his or her breaks, saving a little fuel, saving a little
wear and tear on the engine, and, last but not least, it’s good for the
environment,” he said.
Ben Curtis, fleet maintenance manager for J.P. Noonan Transportation,
was quoted in the report as saying that drivers, though, are not as interested
in what fleets look for in the technologies.
“Drivers are not interested in this technology to save fuel
and reduce idling. They are interested in staying comfortable in the truck
while they are required to be in it,” Curtis said.
Roeth echoed Curtis’ sentiment, noting that “driver
expectations are increasing around the ‘hotel’ environment in the cab,” he
said, noting that many fleets now see idle-reduction as contributing to driver
attraction and retention.
“They talk about it in terms of taking care of drivers every
bit and even more than payback,” Roeth said.
In addition to staying comfortable, drivers are increasingly
using technologies such as phones, lighting, laptops, CPAP machines and even
televisions and refrigerators in their cabs today, increasing the power drain
on batteries and boosting the likelihood the vehicle will idle. Cities, though,
are fighting back. In New York City, there are now signs offering cash rewards
to residents who report idling vehicles.
NACFE’s Confidence Report identified the technologies
available today and offered a conclusion of their confidence level, which is
defined in a matrix in “terms of the expected payback in years compared to the
confidence that the study team has in the available data on the technology –
that is, not only how quickly fleets can expect payback on their investment but
also how certain NACFE is in the assessment of that payback time.”
Among the technologies the report covers, along with NACFE’s
Pros: Inexpensive. They use diesel fuel to provide heat to
the sleeper cab or truck engine (water or coolant heaters) when the engine is
Cons: They do not provide any cooling, power for hotel loads
and create some emissions while operating.
Auxiliary power units
Pros: Either diesel- or battery-powered and do not require
the truck’s main engine for power. Can provide cooling, heating and electric
power for hotel loads. Diesel units can operate in extreme temperatures.
Cons: Battery units must be recharged while diesel units
generate emissions and noise. Battery units can be affected by temperature
extremes and diesel units can be noisy.
Automatic engine start/stop systems
Pros: Allow the main engine to provide truck features
without idling the truck. There are two types of automatic engine start/stop
systems – one that maintains a cab’s interior temperature while the vehicle is
occupied and one that maintains the battery’s state of charge. These systems do
not require additional HVAC components, can be combined with other
technologies, and can avoid violating idle regulations.
Cons: They can be noisy, create vibration and adds to engine
wear and tear.
Electronic engine idle parameters
Pros: Allows for the setting of specific speed, length of
time and other boundaries including extreme temperature settings for engine
idle. These settings are generally standard on new trucks, so there is no cost
to use them.
Cons: Engine manufacturers use different terminology and
there is a possibility that settings could be modified outside of desired
ranges. Also, drivers may feel a fleet is trying to restrict the way they
In addition, vehicle controls and driver behavior, driver
training and driver incentives also merit consideration. Some additional
technologies/solutions that could be beneficial, such as additional cab
insulation, light-colored paint on the outside of the vehicle, ultracapacitor
starting systems and solar panels also deserve consideration.
The most common combinations of technologies currently in
- Driver controls and fuel-operated heater
- Diesel APU and fuel-operated heater
- Battery HVAC and fuel-operated heater
- Automatic engine start/stop system
“The most efficient and effective idle-reduction solution
for a fleet will entail a combination of complementary technologies… For
instance, several of the technologies, namely electronic engine parameters,
driver incentives and extra cab/sleeper insulation, are going to contribute
positively to almost any solution chosen. The right combination will depend on
a given fleet’s routes, fuel costs, climate in the fleet’s area of operation,
shop costs, maintenance cycles, training methods, driver support, fleet
policies and other factors,” the report said.